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East India Company, Job Charnock & Baranagar


East India Company, Job Charnock & Baranagar

Voice-over: Jayanta Baksi


Let’s start with a latest report published in The Times of India, Saturday, 30th January 2010, Kolkata. The heading of the report was “Cannon found in sewer line”. The story was revealed as follows:

The civic workers while dig out sewer lines, a Canon was found from a malodorous, clogged municipal sewer line at Jyotinagar Colony near Sarbamangala  Ghat  of  north Kolkata, located on Strand Bank Road near Baranagar.

The cannon had been lying as worthlessness of darkness under 12 feet beneath the soil, whose correct age is unidentified. 10 feet of length with an outer diameter of 9 inches & an inner diameter of 5 inches Canon was seized by the security personnel of North Port Police Station.

A civic official addressed that prior to take away the dirt; initially they were unable to make out the reality. However, to categorize in a proper way, the Canon will be scrutinize by the specialist of Archaeological Survey of India on Saturday. It seems centuries old nevertheless, only the experts may reveal the fact.

A cannon expert of the Indian Army remarks after conclusion of preliminary examination of the rusty & robust article (Canon) that there is no noticeable crack or break on the Canon, looks to be more than 100 years old muzzle-loading Canon, nevertheless, to be certain they require proper scrutiny.  

On & after observing the photograph of the Canon, other expert Sri.Pranab Chattopadhyay comments that it appears similar to a 250 years old European Canon, most probably of British. There should be a batch number embossed on it, if it is an origin of British.

Eminent historian Barun De said that the cannon could help establish the fact that the Baranagar area was used to be a Dutch settlement before the British arrived in Kolkata. According to him, The Dutch had a settlement in the Baranagar area; even they had a piggery there & prevent probable enemy attack & strengthening the security along the riverfront. Thus it is likely that this canon was employed to protect the Dutch settlement at Baranagar region.

According to the opinion of Sri.Barun De, if it can be proved that the Canon indeed belongs to the pre-British era, the existence of the Dutch settlement at Baranagar area will also be categorically confirmed.

Excellent observation & comments were made by the experts. The Canon may or may not be to the pre-British era, even if it is proved that the canon was not of the Dutch too, the establishment of Dutch in Baranagar area can’t be denied. There were lots of evidences through which it was established earlier that prior to British, the entire Baranagar area was under the direct control of Dutch. That particular Canon may include as another evidence of the Dutch settlement at Baranagar, even for the control of British at Baranagar too. But, ‘categorically confirmation’ will not at all depends only upon the Canon.

Now, prior to dig out the myriad legend, just have a look at the “[‘Map of India’ in early 17th Century at the time of Hawkins & Sir Thomas Roe after Portuguese]”. Here you may notice Moghul Empire, Tributary Chiefs & Portuguese Possessions evidently.

 ‘Map of India’ in early 17th Century at the time of Hawkins & Sir Thomas Roe after Portuguese

[‘Map of India’ in early 17th Century at the time of Hawkins & Sir Thomas Roe after Portuguese]”

Now let’s go to watch those scenarios in a flash-back mode! It may be fascinating to reminder about the pay package given to the personnel of the East India Company at the time of 1757 [Just consider the year]:- Hon’ble Roger Drake, Esq., received £200 per annum; Captain Rev. Mr. Cobbe £50; Senior merchants £40; Junior merchants £30; Factors £15; Doctors £36; Writers £5 per annum. These payments were paid in every 6 months interval. Apart from salaries, perquisites system was also there; hence the delay in the receipts of their remuneration was not so problematic. Apart from regular salary & allowance, they also gain more profitable earnings from personal trading.

The English factories were first founded by the British prior to the year of 1690 and a significant urbanization had sprung up around those foundations.


Another vital point to be noted: In the year of 1717, The British East India Company acquired 38 villages and added these countryside regions to their property in Calcutta. Later they reconstituted them as 55 villages or Mouzas (Panchannogram). Cossipore was one of those villages. H. E. A. Cotton writes, “The Cossipore Reach was one of the finest on the river, and is lined by a number of villa residences.”[1]

From those days Cossipore had a number of industrial entities. The Government Gun Foundry, the Snider and Rifle Shell factories (originally constructed by Colonel Hutchinson), Sugar mills and Jute screw houses.

Cossipore (Bengali) (also spelt Cossipur, Kashipur) is a region of north Kolkata (previously famous as Calcutta), in the Indian state of West Bengal (presently Paschimbanga). Cossipore is one of the old localities of the metropolis, it has a police station and is an assembly constituency. Entally, Manicktala, Beliaghata, Ultadanga, Chitpur, Cossipore, parts of Beniapukur, Ballygunge, Watganj and Ekbalpur, and parts of Garden Reach and Tollygunj were added to Kolkata Municipal Corporation in 1888.[2]

Cossipore Gun and Shell Factory was set up in the year of 1802 A.D. The more than two centuries old Gun and Shell Factory at Cossipore is the oldest surviving factory in the Indian subcontinent, then known as “GUN CARRIAGE AGENCY, COSSIPORE”.

Land was purchased in 1801 from one Mr.Thorn Hill measuring about 200 Bighas, on the bank of river Gangesto construct “Gun Carriage Agency, Cossipore”. Constructed in the form of tile shed at the centre and surrounded by some thatched sheds was completed in 1802 and production of Wooden Gun Carriage, started on 18th March, 1802. This day is the auspicious day for the entire Organization and celebrated as ‘Ordnance Factory Day’ every year. [3]

After shifting of the “Gun Carriage Agency, Cossipore” first to Allahabadin 1814, and then to Fatehgarh in 1816, its importance & impact was reduced. Finally in 1829, all the machineries, tools & tackles were shifted to Fatehgarh.

Nevertheless, it had the strength of springing back to life again and again. The vacant space was utilized for the much-needed expansion and renovation of the Gun Factory of Fort William. [4]

Picture of “Gun Carriage Agency, Cossipore” [Gun and Shell Factory at Cossipore] of that era

Picture of “Gun Carriage Agency, Cossipore” [Gun and Shell Factory at Cossipore] of that era.

Around 1855, breech-loading steel rifled guns had got its way to the British arsenal, but the Cossipore plant was not properly equipped to undertake manufacturing of such guns. The mini-bullet factory was transferred to Dumdum [Ordnance Factory, Dumdum] [At this time this area was under the direct administrative control of Baranagar Police Station, which was situated on the bank ofGangaat Kuthi Ghat, Harakumar Tagore Strand].

The rifled guns, imported from England, required new elongated shells. It was decided that Cossipore would be utilized for manufacturing of the new shells. It underwent some expansion and the name ‘Gun Foundry’ was changed to ‘Foundry and Shell Factory’ in 1872. Along with the manufacturing of new elongated shell, there was requirement of undertaking manufacturing of modern fuses and cartridges to match the newly introduced breech-loading guns. As a result, supplementary growth, development & expansion took place in 1887 and 1890. [4]

In 1890, a shop was erected for the manufacture and repair of fittings of imported breech-loading guns. In 1892, steel was, for the first time casted inIndia[in modern era], at Cossipore by a Siemen’s Martin Open Hearth Plant. In 1896, a rolling mill was erected at this time. However, the metallurgical units were shifted to Ishapore [District of 24Pgs-North] in 1903 as no additional space for expansion was available at Cossipore.


Prior to the period of “Gun Carriage Agency, Cossipore”, another episode alluded to is said to have happened on the banks of the Hooghly about the year 1678…..Yes, the episode of Streynsham Master & at Baranagar:


The Dutch mynheers Streynsham Master was one of the early pioneers of the British East India Company. Master served as the Agent of Madras from 27th January 1678 to 03rd July 1681 A.D., and he is credited with having introduced the first administrative reforms in the Madras Government.

Streynsham Master [1640 – 1724]

Streynsham Master, Preceded by Sir William Langhorne, 1st Baronet & Succeeded by William Gyfford. Streynsham served as the Acting President of the Company’s factory at Surat (Gujrat) during the visit of the President Aungier to the new colony at Bombay. After the return of Aungier, Master served for a few times as a member of the Council. In 1670 he led the British in the successful defense of Surat from the Marathas.

In 1676, even before Langhorne’s removal from power, in advance Master was nominated as the next Agent of Madras in the case of Emergency. In the meantime, till the end of Langhorne’s tenure, Master served as the Agent of the Company’s factory at Masulipatnam and then Bengal, before he was sent back to Madrasto take “in-charge of office” as the second member of the Council.

The foundations of St Mary’s church, the oldest Protestant church in Madras were laid during the Agency of Streynsham Master. The foundation of the church was laid on Lady Day, 1678. The construction of the church was completed in two and a half years and opened on 28th October, 1680.

The population of Madrashad augmented to the point that it seemed difficult to retain the old Choultry courts. Hence, in 1678, the Government of Fort St George set up a judiciary with the Agent and the members of the Council as judges. Two English Choultry judges were appointed to hear cases concerning their Indian subjects.

Specimen Signature of Streynsham Master

Master is credited with having introduced the role of a scavenger who was required to remove the dirt and filth of the streets. Collection of the house-tax and other taxes from the citizen were also empowered by Scavengers. At night, Watchmen were too appointed to protect the settlement. Hotels, Theatres, Taverns, Entertainment-houses etc. had to be licensed.

Richard Master of East Langham, Kent was the father of Streynsham Master. Streynsham married Elizabeth Leigh of Lyme Hall, Cheshire with whom he had a daughter and two sons. In 1692 he procured the Codnor Castleestate in Derbyshire. He served as High Sheriff of that county in 1712. Master and his wife resided at Stanley Grange in Morley.

  • In the 17th Century the Dutch mynheers Streynsham Master had homes at Baranagar.


  • Streynsham Master he who visited Baranagar area in 1676 & uttered about the hog factory where about 3,000 hogs a year were slaughtered and salted for export.


  • Later Baranagar became the centre for the extensive jute trade, manufacturing gunny bags.


  • But, it is completely wrong concept that from slaughtering of hog (as in Bengali the ‘Baraha’ is demarcated for Hog, though, not only ‘Hog’, various religious objects are also being indicated through the word ‘Baraha’ in Bengali) the particular area was christened as “Baranagar”.



Out of several old epitaphs in Calcutta [Kolkata] that of the founder of “City of Joy” Calcutta — the most honored Job Charnock, *** who is briefly described by ‘Orme’ as a man of bravery, without military understanding, but eager to capture revenge on a Government, from which he had in person received the most embarrassing activities, having been imprisoned and terrorized by the Nawab.

[***However, according to the Court order of Calcutta High Court, the foundation day of Calcutta on 24th August, 1690 by Job Charnock was cancelled on 16th May, 2003].

Captain Hamilton traveled in this country at the time of Charnock, states that Charnock was terrific vindictive in the conduct with the natives.  But, who was this Hamilton? Well, to be acquainted with more information about Hamilton, we will have to discuss a different episode, which is related with Music.

  • The All Bengal Music Conference was initiated by Sri.Bhupendra Krishna along with some associates such as Natore’s Maharaja Jogindranath Roy etc.
  • Bhupendra Krishna Ghosh’s ancestor Ramlochun Ghosh had bought a house including music room at 46 Pathuriaghata Street, Calcutta in October 18, 1782.
  • The plot on which Ramlochun’s house stands formerly belonged to Charles Hamilton and according to the ‘title suit’ of the Privy Council, it was proved that ‘Charles Hamilton’ was the ‘Zamindar’ of that time.
  • It was also documented in the ancient paper book of the Privy Council that how the plot was handed over from Charles Hamilton to Greedhur Dutt; from Greedhur Dutt to Rasmonee Dosse [Eternally Living Legend as Rani Rasmoni, Founder of famous Dakshineswar Kali Mandir].

Amongst the first inhabitants of Sutanuti [Sutanuti was one of the three villages that formed the nucleus of Calcutta] Sri.Gobind Bysack appeared to be the owner from Rani Rasmoni and Bysack vended it to Bulloram Dutt, and lastly it was procured by Sri.Ramlochun Ghosh. Ramlochun also procured an adjoining plot from Nurrohurry Dutt.

In the later phase, the grandson of Ramlochan Ghosh, Khelat Chandra Ghosh (1829-1878) shifted out of the nearly 300 year’s old family house at 46 Pathuriaghata Street & constructed a luxurious house at 47 Pathuriaghata Street in 1850–1855 A.D. Pathuriaghata area was one of the strongest monopolies of aristocrat Bengalis of that time.

Now, let’s come to the point of our so called discussion:

"Plan for the intelligence of the military operations at Calcutta, when Attacked and Taken by Seerajah Dowlet, 1756"

You may observe the above map containing “Plan for the intelligence of the military operations at Calcutta, when Attacked and Taken by Seerajah Dowlet, 1756,” of John Call & J.Cheevers, London, 1756. It was a well known episode of Seraj Dowllah & British, which was occurred 255 years back from this day. Hence, if it is confirmed that the aforesaid canon is about 250 years old, then devoid of such map of ‘Military Intelligence’ how one may establish the presence of Dutch settlement in Baranagar?

A Map of Hindoostan 1788 By James Rennell

 Regarding Rennell, we will discuss later however, give pleasure to grant your valuable glance right now.

India Before Wellesley – 1795

You may scrutinize a different authenticate map containing “India Before Wellesley – 1795”. It is clearly mentioned & fairly visible from this map that not only Baranagar but also the entire Bengal & Bihar areas of that time were theterritoryofBritish.

Here, I am producing a few maps which may fascinate your reading.

Map of Calcutta from actual survey in the years of 1847-1849

It’s  a ‘Map of Calcutta from actual survey in the years of 1847-1849’

By Frederick Walter Simms

Note: The suburbs of the town are from surveys subsequently furnished by Major H.L. Thuillier; executed by himself & Captain R. Smyth; reduced and engraved by J. and C. Walker. Note: East is at the top of the map    

Please note that these maps are arranged according to the time of publication or time of Historical events.

A French Map of  Calcutta - 1839

A French Map of  “Calcutta” – 1839 Map credited to Dufour and Benard, published by Rouard. Note: East is at the top of the Map.        

Plan of the City of Calcutta – 1883

            Plan of the City of Calcutta – 1883

           Note: East is at the top of the map

We are discussing about Job Charnock. Let’s come to the point of our so called chatting. Captain Hamilton traveled in this countryside at the time of Charnock and remark that Charnock behaved with the native with a terrific cruel mode. On the other hand, Job Charnock was not been very rigorous with all natives; specially with the attractive & youthful Hindu widow, whom he rescued as she was about to become Sati, and appropriated to himself.

Satidaha Ghat, Baranagar

                                      Satidaha Ghat, Baranagar

Charnock appears to have affectionately loved whilst living, and according to Captain Hamilton, deeply mourned when dead, sacrificing a fowl, it is said, at her tomb on every anniversary of her death as long as he lived, which would appear to show that she must have become a Moslem when she was cast out from the pale of Hindooism; and this is likely enough, for the natives prefer to belong to any caste rather than to none.

We must not pass over the romantic incidents in the life of Job Charnock which was described by “Joseph Townshend” a Pilot of the Ganges, [bears a date subsequent to the 17th century, the 24th June 1738] he who revealed in his ‘rhyme’ as follows: —

“I’ve slipped my cable, messmates, I’m dropping down with the tide;

I have my sailing orders while ye at anchor ride.

And never, on fair June morning, have I put out to sea.

With clearer conscience, or better hope, or heart more light and free.


Shoulder to shoulder, Joe my boy, into the crowd like a wedge!

Out with the hangers, messmates, but do not strike with the edge!

Cries Charnock, ‘Scatter the faggots? Double that Brahmin in two!

The tall pale widow is mine, Joe, the little brown girl’s for you.’


Young Joe (you’re nearing sixty) why is your hide so dark!

Katie has fair soft blue eyes — who blackened yours? Why hark?

The morning gun. Ho steady. The arquebuses to me;

I’ve sounded the Dutch High Admiral’s heart as my lead doth sound the sea.


Sounding, sounding theGanges— floating down with the tide.

Moor me close by Charnock, next to my nut-brown bride.

My blessing to Kate at Fairlight — Holwell, my thanks to you.

Steady! – We steer for Heaven through scud drifts cold and blue.”

What ever may be about the so called  ‘rhyme’,  it may be good or may be bad in taste to describe, but we are unfolding the history. History is completely helpless to satisfy one’s ego.

Then, let’s move toward & previous to 1684-1685, the trade of the Company in Bengal had been subject matter to regular turbulence from the wish of the Viceroy. The seat of the Factory was at Hooghly, and then the port of Bengal, which was ruled by the Fouzdar [Mohammedan Officer] with huge troops to control & commanding the utmost power of that particular place.

Thus Company’s officers had no means of resisting offense & the Company’s dealing was entirely depended upon the sympathy of Fouzdar. In Bombay & Madras lands & settlements as well as Company’s business were well equipped under their command but in Bengal they were not capable to obtain similar control rather constantly receiving hindrances.

Undoubtedly, the Court of Directors were worried to obtain the equivalent autonomy from Bengal &  always reminded of the drawbacks. As a result, they instructed their president to claim of the Nawab and through Nawab, the Great Mogul to grant of territory where they might set up warehouses and enhance security for self defense.

While these demand was under consideration, the oppression of the native government brought matters to a point. The Contractors, at Cossimbazar, were Rs.1,00,000.50 in debt to the Company’s agents, and rejected to deliver new supplies for the investment speculation without a fresh advance of same amount. Charnock declined to comply with the commanding demand. According to the request of contractors Nawab decided in their favor.

Charnock still remained firm. An extremely inflated representation of the situation was propelled to the Emperor of the disobediences of the British. All their trade was at once blocked, and their vessels were sent away mostly in vacant.

When the essence of such information reached to England, the Company discussed the state of affairs to James The II. To establish by force  &  to control, the monarch approved & declared for warfare against the Great Mogul.

Accordingly British sent out a huge armor under Captain Nicholson, consisting of 10 ships, of  from 12 to 70 guns  &  additionally 6 companies of  infantry at the same time. The Directors ordered their officers to augment the strength of Chittagong  with  200 [Two Hundred] pieces of canon, and create the area as settlement in favor of  business and to capture the Capital – Dacca, troops ought to march up against the Dacca– however the plan was never carried out.

But in actual, only a part of the British convoy arrived at Hooghly; however while the president was waiting for relaxes; an annoyance was caused by 3 soldiers on 28th October 1686, at Hooghly and which transfer on a common meeting.

According to the order of Captain Nicholson the town (read Calcutta or Kolkata) was charged with massive bombing together with violence, resulting 500 houses destroyed completely by fire & out of  fear and to expand the time, Fouzdar solicit for a treaty. As  Hooghly was an open township, the Company’s officers set on to drag and throw the town & reproduced their position during the treaty.

  • On the other hand, in spite to obey the orders, soldiers had received from home of proceeding to Chittagong, they retired to Chuttanuttee, a little below the Dutch factory at  Baranagore, where they landed on the 20th November 1686.
  • The English / British flag was for the first time placed in the spot destined to turn into the capital of a great empire & crafted for a potential history of the sub-continent, which was not apprehended at that time.

[Spelling & lingo’s are mostly untouched to sustain the magic charm of that era – Jayanta Baksi]


References & Further Reading:

1. Cotton, H.E.A.,CalcuttaOld and New, 1909/1980, p. 221, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

2. Bagchi, Amiya Kumar, Wealth and Work inCalcutta, 1860-1921, inCalcutta, theLivingCity, Vol. I, edited by Sukanta Chaudhuri, p. 213, Oxford University Press.

3. “Gun & Shell Factory Cossipore”; Bicentenary Calendar 1802 – 2002.

4. “Two Centuries of Guns and Shells”. Sainik Samachar.

5. Sen, Ajit, Ancholik Etihas – Baranagar.



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Indian Statistical Institute – Kolkata, Baranagar, বরানগরের গর্ব পৃথিবী বিখ্যাত ইন্ডিয়ান স্ট্যাটিসটিক্যাল ইনস্টিটিউট

  World Famous Indian Statistical Institute – situated at Baranagar, Kolkata – A Concise Documentation

                                  Voice-over: Jayanta Baksi

               বরানগরের গর্ব পৃথিবী বিখ্যাত ইন্ডিয়ান স্ট্যাটিসটিক্যাল ইনস্টিটিউট 

17th December 1931. Another diamond studded feather sensitively caught up into the golden crown of Baranagar. The Indian Statistical Institute (I.S.I.) was established by an Indian scientist and applied statistician,  Professor Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis [29.06.1893 – 28.06.1972] FRS, at none other than in Baranagar, located [ 22°38′56″N 88°22′37″E / 22.648810°N 88.377058°E / 22.648810; 88.377058 ] in the northern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata. This institute is considered as one of the leading centers in the world dedicated for training and research in statistics and prop up the interaction of statistics with natural and social sciences through collaborative research effort.

P.C.Mahalanobis (29 June 1893 – 28 June 1972)

P.C.Mahalanobis (29 June 1893 – 28 June 1972)

In 1931, at the time of Prof. Mahalanobis, statistics was a comparatively new scientific turf; it was till then, loosely affiliated with the University of Calcutta. Although the Department of Statistics is small in size and relatively young it was at one time the premier statistics department in the country & is still very well known. Originally it was started as a Statistical Laboratory by Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in the Physics Department of the Presidency College in 1920s. Later, it housed the ISI before the institute moved to Baranagar. At this time, Professor Mahalanobis was the only person functioning for ISI and dealt with an annual expenditure of Rs. 250/- only.Several colleagues of Prof. Mahalanobis won an interest in statistics and the group grew in the Statistical Laboratory. A meeting was called on the 17 December 1931 with Pramatha Nath Banerji (Minto Professor of Economics), Nikhil Ranjan Sen (Khaira Professor of Applied Mathematics) and Sir R. N. Mukherji. This meeting led to the establishment of the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), and formally registered on 28 April 1932 as a non-profit distributing learned society under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860.

Later, it was registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act XXVI of 1961 amended in 1964. It gradually grew with the pioneering work of a group of his colleagues including S. S. Bose, J. M. Sengupta, R. C. Bose, S. N. Roy, K. R. Nair, R. R. Bahadur, G. Kallianpur and D. B. Lahiri. The first President was Sir R. N. Mukherji & Honorary Secretary was Prof. P.C.Mahlanobis. In later phase, eminent personalities sworn into the chair of President, such as – Sir Edward Bunsal [1926–1944], Sir James Ridfea [1939– 1940], Sir Badridas Goenka [1941–1942], Sir Nilratan Sarkar [1942–1944], Prof. Chintamoni Dwarakanath Deshmukh [1944–1964] etc. The institute also gained major assistance through Pitamber Pant, who was a secretary to the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Pant was trained in statistics at the Institute and took a keen interest in the institute.

The ISI was relocated to a property owned by Professor Mahalanobis, sited in a sprawling 30-acre estate on the Barrackpore Trunk Road (B.T. Road) in the Baranagore named “Amrapali”. Formerly, this place was known as “Nainan’s Promode Kanan”. The dust of the feet of SriSri. Ramkrishna Paramhansma can be traced here as he arrived & makes an imprint at “Nainan’s Promode Kanan”. At that time, there was a well-known film making studio exists in this place. Prof. Mahalanobis & his wife Mrs. Nirmalkumari [Nee – Rani] Mahalanobis was the dweller of “Mukh Bodhir Vidyalaya” [Deaf & Dumb School, Estd. 1960] in Baranagar situated at 265/19, Gopal Lal Tagore Road, Baranagar, next to Tobin Road & Gopal Lal Tagore Road crossing. Previously, it’s name wasSashi Villa’, Rabindra Nath Tagore renamed it as ‘Netrokona’. Rabindra Nath often visited [Till 04th November 1937] their abode & resided with them at ‘Netrokona’, their abode & wrote a few poems.

Whilst Rabindra Nath takes notice about the information that the ISI is positioned in a lush green plot & mostly occupied with mango trees and probably due to that rationale, he chosen the name of Institute as “Amrapali” after a sacred Buddhist sanctuary, prior to its construction was over, though he never stopover at “Amrapali”. Initially it was an old garden house, which was purchased by Prasanta Chandra and then remodeled, much in the style of the Udayana building at Santiniketan.

There was a cordial relationship in between Prof.Mahalanobis & Rabindra Nath Tagore prior to Baranagar episode. Prof.Mahalanobis belonged to a family of Bengali landed gentry who lived in Bikrampur [now in Bangladesh]. His grandfather Gurucharan Mahalanobis (1833-1916) moved to Calcutta in 1854 and built up a business, started a chemist shop in 1860. Gurucharan was influenced by Sri.Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905), father of the Nobel poet, Rabindranath Tagore. Gurucharan was actively involved in social movements such as the ‘Brahmo Samaj’, acting as its Treasurer and President. His residence was on 210 Cornwallis Street [presently Bidhan Sarani] was the center of the Brahmo Samaj.

Gurucharan married a widow against social traditions. His elder son Prof.Subodhchandra Mahalanobis (1867-1954) was the father of P. C. Mahalanobis. Subodhchandra was a distinguished educationist who studied physiology at Edinburgh University. [Subodhchandra Returned to India from England in 1900 and joined the Bengal Education Service & was posted at Presidency College as the Head of the Department of Biology, which was at that time composed of Human Physiology and Botany, in the same year (This department was founded in 1900). In 1902, study of Human Physiology started as a separate course at this college, which was officially recognized in 1903 by the University of Calcutta. On the Founders’ Day, i.e. 20 January, in 1913, the new building for science subjects, later named as Baker Laboratories, was formally inaugurated and the Department of Human Physiology was shifted to the second floor of the new building. In 1915, the Calcutta University started the M.Sc. in Human Physiology in this department and later became a Professor at the Presidency College became head of the department of Physiology. Subodhchandra also became a member of the Senate of the Calcutta University].

Born in this house, P. C. Mahalanobis grew up in a socially active family surrounded by intellectuals and reformers. Mahalanobis received his early schooling at the ‘Brahmo Boys School’ [Estd.1859] in Calcutta graduating in 1908; joined the Presidency College, Calcutta and received a B.Sc. degree with honours in physics in 1912; left for England in 1913 to join Cambridge, however missed a train and stayed with a friend at King’s College, Cambridge. He did well in his studies, also took an interest in cross-country walking and punting on the river. He interacted with the mathematical genius Srinivasa Ramanujan during the latter’s time at Cambridge. After his Tripos in physics, Mahalanobis worked with C. T. R. Wilson at the Cavendish Laboratory. He took a short break and went to India and here he was introduced to the Principal of Presidency College and was invited to take classes in physics.

In the year of 1911, Rabindra Nath visited this habitation, where Prof. Mahalanobis recite the poem ‘Achalayatan’. Rabindra Nath strongly opposed concerning the massacres of Jalianwalabag, Punjab in 1919. [13th November, 1913, Indians came to know that the Nobel Prize for literature had been awarded to Tagore for Gitanjali. On 26th Decemeber, University of Calcutta conferred on him the honorary degree of “D.Litt.”; received Knighthood in 1915]. When he was writing a historic letter to Governor General Lord Chelmsford disclaiming his Knighthood in protest, Prof. Mahalanobis was alongside with the poet.

In the year of 1921, the 22nd December, “Visva-Bharati” [Inaugurated December 23, 1921. Visva-Bharati’s Motto: Yatra visvam bhavatyekanidam (Vedic text), Where the world makes a home in a single nest.] was reclaimed and officially declared as a Public Institution. Rabindra Nath gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University. In this University, Rabindra Nath sworn as founder President,  Rathindra Nath Tagore (the son of Rabindra Nath) & Prof. Mahalanobis were taken oath as joint Secretary. Prof. Mahalanobis performed his duty efficiently as secretary till the inception of ISI -1931.

After turn up from England, a novel relationship was built up involving Prof. Mahalanobis & Nirmalkumari, daughter of Prof. Heramba Chandra Moitra [The North City College was founded as a school in the year 1879 A.D. and was raised to a college in the year 1881 by a band of patriotic and self-less workers of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj headed by the late Ananda Mohan Bose, Sivnath Shastri, Umeshchandra Dutta, Heramaba Chandra Moitra & others. Prof. Heramba Chandra Moitra, the Principal of City College, had the distinction of being made a University Professor and received an honourary D. Litt from Calcutta University in 1931. A pious Brahmo and a devout theologian, he was an adoring pupil of Charles Tawney. A staunch puritan, he was steeped in Carlyle, Emerson and Wordsworth].

Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Daughter of Prof.Heramba Chandra Moitra & Beloved Wife of Prof. P.C. Mahalanobis

There relationship turns up into affection. But, Prof. Moitra was absolutely against of such bonding. The contention was partly due to of various Mahalanobis’ opposition clauses in the membership of the student wing of the Brahmo Samaj, including restraining members from drinking and smoking. In 1909, Nirmal kumari was in bed ridden state due to poor health & her condition was really serious. At this time, Rabindra Nath finished his legendary poetical work ‘Lipika’. Prof. Mahalanobis arrived beside the bed of Nirmalkumari with the copy of ‘Lipika’ & recite those verses one after another from it. Astonishingly, Nirmalkumari, get rid of her all sufferings.Prof. Moitra realizes about their deep & affable connection & grant consent of their marriage, nevertheless he notified that the parents [Mrs. & Prof. Moitra] will not be present in that particular matrimonial ceremony.

Renowned physician, Dr.Nilratan Sarkar (01.10.1861 to 18.05.1943) [Dr.Nilratan Sarkar was a medical practitioner, philanthropist, an educationist and entrepreneur. His father Nandalal Sarkar came from a poor kayastha family of Jessore and settled later at Joynagar, Khulna. Born on 1 October 1861 at Netra in the district of 24-Parganas, passed the Entrance examination in 1876 from the local school and received the vernacular diploma in medicine in 1879 or 1880 from the Campbell medical school. He graduated in 1885 and taught in a school for sometime. He took his MB, MA and MD degrees from the Calcutta University successively in 1888, 1889 and 1890. In 1888 Nilratan married Nirmala, the daughter of Girishchandra Majumdar, a Brahma missionary of East Bengal and became a Brahma. He founded a non-Government College for medicine in 1895, which came to be known as Calcutta Medical School and College of Physicians and Surgeons of Bengal in 1904. The school branch gave training for 4 years in vernacular while the other section gave instructions through the medium of English for five years. The later section was transformed into a full-fledged Medical College known as the Carmichael Medical College in 1916 and received university recognition in 1917. In 1918, the ‘Medical Education Society’ was formed to conduct the affairs of this school. Nilratan became its president in 1922 and remained in the position till 1941. He was one of the enthusiastic founders of the Science College of the Calcutta University and the National Council of Education, which was formed during the anti-partition movement in Bengal. He was closely associated with the INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE] was the maternal uncle of Prof. Moitra and finally, in the day of 27th February 1923, at Dr.Sarkar’s residence, the marriage ceremony was successfully accomplished in presence of Rabindra Nath Tagore. In this occasion, Rabindra Nath harmonic a song, blessed the newly married couple & gifted a signed copy of ‘Basanta’.

It is not commonly known that Rabindranath Tagore, who is often called the monsoon poet, had indeed written some of his poems at the Alipore Observatory in Kolkata, where he often lived as a guest of the meteorologist, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis. Tagore had been encouraging Mahalanobis to pursue statistics, which he in fact did. The India Meteorological Department lost Mahalanobis as he left meteorology and went on to do pioneering and fundamental work in statistics and later established the Indian Statistical Institute at Kolkata in 1931. Prof. and his wife, Nirmal Kumari, known affectionately as Rani Mahalanobis, regularly played hosts to Tagore at their official residence on the first floor of the Alipore Observatory building. Tagore had a room for himself, but he preferred the shade of the giant banyan tree that it overlooked, under which he sat and penned his literary masterpieces.

Rani & Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with Rabindra Nath Tagore at Alipore Observatory, Kolkata

It was in the fitness of things, that Rabindranath Tagore, the Monsoon Poet, drew his inspiration from clouds and rain in the campus of a meteorological observatory! Tagore’s room at Alipore has now been converted into a small museum which houses some of his memorabilia and the banyan tree continues to stand at the hallowed spot in homage to his memory. A rare digital retouched photograph of Rabindranath Tagore with Prasanta Chandra and Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis sitting under the banyan tree at Alipore Observatory is providing. The photograph was taken in 1926 and has been digitally enhanced. It is displayed in the room of the Deputy Director General of Meteorology, Regional Meteorological Centre, Alipore, Kolkata.

According to the aspiration of Rabindra Nath, Mrs. & Prof. Mahalanobis visited assorted places of Europe alongwith Rabindra Nath in the year of 1926, which is legendary as poet’s “Europe Bhraman”. In this phase, they have visited Italy, Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, England, Norway, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Greece, Egypt & Sweden.

Tagore in Balatonfured. On his right are Nirmal Kumari (Rani) and Prashanta Mahalanobis

Tagore in front of Hotel Gellert, Budapest. On his right are Prashanta and Nirmal Kumari (Rani) Mahalanobis

Tagore and his physician, Dr Schmidt, in Balatonfured

The Gipsy musician Bela Radics is playing to Tagore in Budapest. On the left side are Nirmal Kumari (Rani) and Prashanta Mahalanobis.Tagore and his physician, Dr Schmidt, in Balatonfured




 At this juncture, Rabindra Nath meets up with celebrities like Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, John Boyer etc. Detailed portrayals engraved by Rani Mahalanobis in her book “Kobir sathe Europe”.

Impact of Rabindra Nath on Prof.Mahalanobis moreover could be traced even in the decade of 60’s & 70’s in one of the unpublished article of Prof.Mahalanobis ‘Adhunik Bharate Thakurer Provab’.

Prof. illustrates about the impact of Rabindra Nath’s philosophy, thinking & view point on Indian traditional heritage. On 10th September, 1937, Rabindra Nath was in poor health badly at Santiniketan; moved to Calcutta on 12th October at the residence of Prof.Mahalanobis of Baranagar. He was under the charming and class care of Rani Mahalanobis. Within this span of 3 weeks [14th October to 04th November 1937] numerous dignitaries arrived at ‘Sashi Villa’ of Baranagar, to view Kobiguru Rabindra Nath.

Prof.Mahalanobis evaluates the ancient ‘Jaina Philosophy’ in the midst of ‘Theory of Probability’ and compares the practical statistical out–look. A brief contribution of Prof. Mahalanobis in Statistical Science can be sum up as follows:

  • 1. Foundation of Indian Statistical Institute;
  • 2. Mahalanobis Distance;
  • 3. Meteorological Research;
  • 4. Early Examples of Operations Research – which he actually meant for Research & Flood Control;
  • 5. Educational Tests;
  • 6. Errors in Field Experimentations;
  • 7. Large Scale Sample Survey;
  • 8. Perspective Planning;
  • 9. Froctile Graphical Analysis;
  • 10. Indian Journal of Statistics [Sankha series];
  • 11. Mechanized data Processing and Computational Mathematics;
  • 12. Statistical Quality Control and Operations Research for Indian Industries;
  • 13. Data Acquisition and Analysis of Natural Science and Social Science.

However, he is best remembered for the ‘Mahalanobis distance’, a statistical measure. Prof.Mahalanobis never wishes to perceive India as Super Power; rather his vision was to the development & maturity of modern and contemporary science & technology as per the Indian perspective to eradicate anarchy, oppression, meagerly and so on.

ISI was officially founded in the year of 1931, however it was in his psyche from 15 years back to the inception of ISI. In the year of 1916 he described about his desire to one of his relative. He expressed in that letter that in Cambridge, he wish to study Physics, Mathematics, Psychologhy, Physiology, Social Science, Economics, Educational Science, Physical Science, Astronomy, Philosophy, Statistics, Archaeology, Art of Drawing, Modern Literature, Sanskrit etc. As he didn’t turn back to Cambridge, ultimetly founded ISI & in ISI apart from Sanskrit, mostly all other’s subjects were studied to some extent & as per international standard.

In 1933, the journal “Sankhya” was also founded along the lines of “Karl Pearson”’s “Biometrika”. The Indian Statistical Institute publishes Sankhya, the Indian Journal of Statistics, founded by Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1933. He was the editor of Sankhya till his gloomy demise. Currently [2010], Sankhya is published in a two series format. Broadly, Series A covers Mathematical Statistics and Probability, while Series B covers Applied and Interdisciplinary Statistics. Reviews and discussion articles in areas of current research activity are also published. Each series publishes two issues per volume.

Rabindra Nath Tagore – Albert Kahn Collection. Retouched by: Jayanta Baksi





Sankhya: An introduction by Rabindranath Tagore- “The enchantment of rhythm is obviously felt in music, the rhythm which is inherent in the notes and their groupings. It is the magic of mathematics, this rhythm which is in the heart of all creation, which moves in the atom and in its different measures fashions gold and lead, the rose and the thorn, the sun and the planets, the variety and vicissitudes of man’s history. These are the dance steps of numbers in the arena of time and space, which weave the maya of appearance, the incessant flow of changes that ever is and is not. What we know as intellectual truth, is that also not a perfect rhythm of the relationship of facts that produce a sense of convincingness to a person who somehow feels that he knows the truth? We believe any fact to be true because of a harmony, a rhythm in reason, the process of which analysable by the logic of mathematics.” – Rabindranath Tagore [Year: 1935, Volume: 2, Part: 1, Page No.: 1]


J.B.S.Haldane at Young Age

The Institute started a training section in 1938. Many of the early workers left the ISI for careers in the USA and with the government of India. Prof.Mahalanobis invited J. B. S. Haldane to join him at the ISI and Haldane joined as a Research Professor from August 1957 and stayed on until February 1961 at Fakir Ghosh Lane, Baranagar, western part of G.L.T.Road. He resigned in February 1961 from ISI due to frustrations with the administration and disagreements with Prof.Mahalanobis’s administrative policies & moved to a newly established biometry unit in Orissa. He was also very concerned with the frequent travels and absence of the director and wrote “The journeyings of our Director define a novel random vector”. Haldane however helped the ISI grow in biometrics.


John Burdon Sanderson Haldane at Matured Age

   John Burdon Sanderson Haldane FRS, descended from an aristocratic intellectual Scottish family (5 November 1892 – 1 December 1964), known as Jack (but who used ‘J.B.S.’ in his printed works), was a British-born geneticist and evolutionary biologist. He was one of the founders (along with Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright) of population genetics. He was educated at Eton and New College, Oxford and served in the British Army during the First World War in the Black Watch regiment. In 1952, he received the Darwin Medal from the Royal Society. In 1956, he was awarded the Huxley Memorial Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Among other awards, he received the Feltrinelli Prize, an Honorary Doctorate of Science, an Honorary Fellowship at New College, and the Kimber Award of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Linnean Society of London’s prestigious Darwin–Wallace Medal in 1958. In 1924, Haldane met Charlotte Burghes (née Franken)(April 27th 1894 – March 16th 1969), a young reporter for the Daily Express. To marry, Charlotte divorced her husband Jack Burghes, causing some controversy.

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane – Known Picture

Haldane was almost dismissed from Cambridge for the way he handled his meeting with her, which led to the divorce. They married in 1926. Following separation in 1942, the Haldanes divorced in 1945. He later married Helen Spurway(c.1917-15 February 1978, Hyderabad, India). Haldane became a socialist during World War I, supported the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, and finally became a Communist. He was an enthusiastic, idealistic Marxist, and wrote many articles in the Communist Daily Worker. He was the chairman of the editorial board of the London edition for several years.

Haldane’s move to India, initially to the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) was influenced by a number of factors. Officially he stated that his chief political reason was in response to the Suez Crisis. He wrote: “Finally, I am going to India because I consider that recent acts of the British Government have been violations of international law.” His interest in India was also because of his interest in biological research; belief that the warm climate would do him good and that India offered him freedom and shared socialist dreams. At the ISI, he headed the biometry unit and spent time researching a range of topics and guiding other researchers around him.

Haldane died from cancer on 1 December 1964, at the age of 72. He willed that his body be used for study at the Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, Bhubaneswar, India. Till 1961, his nationality was British afterwards became in Indian Citizen. In India, he lived & worked at Baranagar but not in & around of this area but in Kolkata a road [J.B.S.Haldane Avenue – infront of the Science City] was named confered after him.

In 1959 the Institute was declared as an Institute of national importance and a deemed university. Until then, it was associated with the University of Calcutta. ISI started “centres” in New Delhi and Bangalore and “units” in Chennai and Hyderabad. In 2008, ISI Chennai was upgraded from “unit” to “centre”. ISI Kolkata has a campus consisting of six addresses: 201 through 206 Barrackpore Trunk Road. These include a house, which was an erstwhile office of National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) of India, and prior to that, a renowned movie studio “Indo-British Film Company” was established at 86, B.T.Road.

The first electronic computer in India, as HEC-2M, was installed in the institute in 1956, and one of the foremost formal courses for computer science in the country started in the institute in 1962. The institute grants degrees and diplomas in Statistics, Mathematics, Quantitative Economics, Computer Science and such other subjects related to Statistics.

The International Statistical Education Centre was established in the institute in 1950 in collaboration with International Statistical Institute under the auspices of the UNESCO and the Government of India for providing training in Statistics to sponsored students mainly from Asia and the Far East.

ISI is generally regarded as being the best Indian school in the few areas of its expertise namely statistics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative economics, operations research and information science and is considered to be one of the few research oriented Indian schools at both, the undergraduate and graduate level. The Headquarters of ISI is located in the northern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata, in Baranagar, in Bon-Hoogly not far from the Dunlop Bridge. Three other centres are located in Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai. The ISI’s teaching activities are in Kolkata, Delhi and Bangalore, while other cities in India have branch offices engaged in projects and consultancy in Statistical Quality Control and Operations Research. Presently, ISI has a total annual expenditure of over Rs.15,000,000 and employs 255 faculty members, and over 1,000 supporting staff.

Presently, ISI consists of two approximately equal parts – the office complex and the residential complex, – separated by a public road. This road (Girish Chandra Ghosh Street) connects B.T. Road with Gopal Lal Tagore Road, a road which runs along the western boundary of the main campus. The office complex bears door numbers 202, 203 and 204, and the residential complex, 205 and 206. There is no connection between the two parts of the campus; to travel connecting the residential and office complexes, there is no connection between the two parts of the campus; to travel connecting the residential and office complexes, one has to come out on B.T.Road and come into the other campus.

There is also a narrow public road that separates 202 and 203 B.T. Road. There is however, a direct connection between these two premises. The principal buildings in the office complex are the Main Building, the Geology Building, the Library Building, the Administration Building and the Amrapali. The residential campus at 205 and 206 B.T. Road premises includes, apart from several staff quarters, the Guest House, the Medical Welfare Unit, the Boys’ Hostel, the Research Scholars’ and ISEC hostel, the Ladies hostel, and parts of several service units. Some residential quarters are located in Deluxe Garden, an enclave located on the west side of the Gopal Lal Tagore Road [adjacent to Fakir Ghosh Lane], near the office campus.

Gupta Nivas located opposite side of Baranagar Road Railway Station, on B.T.Road

  • In this picuture, one may observe Silpacharya Abanindra Nath Tagore is sitting in an ‘easy chair’, at his residence ‘Gupta Nivas’ of Baranagar (Anthology & Retouch:

ISI also owns Gupta Nivas, a property located on the west side of B.T. Road, north of the office campus of ISI, opposide side of Baranagar Road Railway Station and Narendra Nagar & under the jurisdiction of Kamarhati Municipality. The area is located in the crossing of  Barrackpore Trunk Road & Rabindra Nath Tagore Road.  This building has a remarkable history of the final not a few days of Silpacharya Abanindra Nath Tagore, but is no longer in use. It was lying vacant dovoid of any security, yet from 2011, ISI has arranged to deploy private security personnel to protect unauthorised or casual entry of outsiders. However and apprantely the building is lying vacant without a least renovation, restoration or mere protection.  Later, we will discuss & disclose a few fascinating information concerning, ‘Gupta Nivas’.

Geology Building was constructed in the year 1962. Apart from some academic units, the institute has also led research in anthropology and palaeontology. The Geology building houses a 195-seat auditorium [the Geology Auditorium] and a museum [Geology Museum]. The museum contains several artifacts of geological as well as archeological significance including a species of dinosaur fossils [Mostly completed], the “Isisaurus”, was named after the institute. It was originally named “Baropa-sauras Tagori” in the honor of the great poet Rabindranath Tagore. The museum was first opened for public viewing in 1977.

During the early 1950s Prof.Mahalanobis had initiated a new division in the Institute’s library as ‘Museum’ where letters and reports from distinguished personalities and photographs of eminent visitors were stored with care. He had made an arrangement to set up a permanent museum on the history and activities of the Institute and the growth of statistical science in India. However, this plan could not be immediately carried out because of the critical illness of Professor Mahalanobis, who passed away on 28th June, 1972.

On the eve of the birth centenary of Prof. Mahalanobis in 1993, the Institute decided to set up a ‘museum’ and ‘archives’ in his memory and attempt was made to trace the historical documents from the Development Office in “Amrapali” which was the formerly the personal office of Prof. Mahalanobis. A large number of private and official documents of Professor Mahalanobis were kept in the custody of his wife with Mrs. Nirmal Kumari Mahalanobis, which remained closed following her death in 1981. The collection was transferred in 1991 to the custody of ISI through the executor of the will of the estate of Mrs. Mahalanobis. The building was donated to the ‘Brahmo Samaj’ by Prof.Mahalanobis. During his birth centenary the Institute purchased the building from the Brahmo Samaj and set up the museum and archives in his memory.

The museum and archives is located in the campus of the Indian Statistical Institute on 203 Barrackpur Trunk Road, Kolkata 700108. Entrance to the museum is from the southern side of the building facing the view of the pond. On the ground floor, through the five galleries different phases of the life and work of Prof.Mahalanobis have been depicted mostly through the photographic display distributed in different panels, each of them having a thematic representation. On the first floor the chatal (the open lounge), the study room and the residential rooms of Professor and Mrs. Mahalanobis are reinstated in order to give an authentic impression of the period.

The archives keep in its custody all the official and personal documents, correspondence, files, scientific and literary papers, photographs, news paper cuttings, diaries and manuscripts of Prof.Mahalanobis and Mrs.Mahalanobis. This old ‘Museum’ collection formed the nucleus of the present museum with the archives reinforced by the files, records and photographs from the Development Office and the personal collections of Prof. & Mrs. Mahalanobis. “Amrapali”, the former residence of Professor Mahalanobis at the Institute’s campus, was henceforth turned into the museum and archives.

Presently [2010], the museum has five galleries, each depicting distinctive part of life and valuable effort of Professor Mahalanobis, with the display of 752 exhibits through 91 panels. The study room and the residential portions of Professor and Mrs. Mahalanobis as well as the “chatal”, where he usually received his eminent guests, also formed the part of the museum for their historic value. The museum has in its collection a large number of artifacts related to Professor Mahalanobis, such as his honor and degrees, medals, dresses and some of his personal belongings. The small seminar room in the ground floor of western side of the building holds seminars, talks, film shows and other small functions.

An almost complete “fossil” skeleton of 47 feet long “Sauropod” from the early “Jurassic” period (about 160 million years back) preserved at ISI, Baranagar

                               (Fossil Skeleton related Anthology & Photo Retouch:

One of the most significant magnetism of the museum is an almost complete “fossil” skeleton of 47 feet long “Sauropod” from the early “Jurassic” period (about 160 million years back). This fossil was discovered by ISI geologists during in a 1958 exploration at the “Pranahita-Godavari” valley. It was dig out during a subsequent expedition in 1960-61. The dinosaur has been christened “Barapasaurus tagorei”. The name is a coinage of “Bara pa”, which means ‘big leg’ in Hindi, “saurus”, which is a standard suffix in zoological names of lizard-like creatures, and Tagore. The discovery coincided with the birth centenary year of the poet Rabindranath Tagore, who was a well-wisher of ISI. “The Workshop on the “Geology of the Pranhita-Godavari Valley: Current Status and Future Directions” held at the I.S.I. from 16-18 November, 1999, received a good response. We extend our thanks to all participants and participating Organisations for making it a great success. – Indian Statistical Institute, Baranagar, Kolkata.”

Where is Pranahita-Godavari?   

 *** Pranhita [“helpful to life”] —River in the Central Provinces, formed by the united streams of the Wardha & Waingangā, whose junction is at SeonI in Chanda District (190 36′ N. and 790 49′ E.). From here the river has a course of 72 miles, until it joins the Godavari above Sironcha. Throughout its length the Pranhita is the western boundary of Chanda District and of the Central Provinces, which it separates from the Hyderabad State. Its bed is broad and sandy, with the exception of a long stretch of rock below the confluence at SeonI. [Source: THE IMPERIAL GAZETTEER OF INDIA, VOL. XX, OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS, 1908, Page – 216]. ……….Jayanta Baksi (contact:

Unity in diversity is the motto of ISI. Among alumni of ISI, there are many who excelled in the field of statistics, mathematics or probability. Notable ones among them include C. R. Rao, S. R. S. Varadhan, D. Basu, K. R. Parthasarathy, T.Parthasarathy, Thriyambakam Krishnan, Rajeev Karandikar, Ravindra Khattree, J. S. Rao, Kesar Singh, Anuradha Roy, D. C. Rao, Ranajit Chakraborty, Probal Chaudhuri, Arup Bose etc.

Alike Prof.Mahalanobis, Mrs.Mahalanobis too donated her property in Giridih, a mineral-rich picturesque town and part of  Hazaribag District [ Presently Jharkhand State ] & is nestled between the Usri river and the Parasnath Hills in which the only women’s college, Sri Ramkrishna Mahila college [named after the great saint Sri Ramkrishna Paramhansadev] in Giridih district was founded & commenced officially from 01st August 1978. It was in March 1979 that Rani Mahalanobis donated a vast area of land with three buildings. Rabindra Nath Tagore had named the buildings ‘shalboni’. ‘Mahua’ and ‘Uttara’, familiar to all as the ‘Mahua Complex’ and which is now called ‘P.C.Mahalanobis Block’.

The major objectives of the Indian Statistical Institute, as stated in its Memorandum of Association, are: 1) To promote the study and dissemination of knowledge of Statistics, to develop statistical theory and methods, and their use in research and practical applications generally, with special reference to problems of planning of national development and social welfare; 2) To undertake research in various fields of natural and social sciences, with a view to the mutual development of Statistics and these sciences; 3) To provide for, and undertake, the collection of information, investigation, projects and operational research for purposes of planning and the improvement of efficiency of management and production.

Traditionally, ISI offers fewer programs (and admits fewer students) than most other degree granting academic institutions. The following are the degree programs currently offered by ISI:

  • Bachelor of Statistics (Honours)
  • Bachelor of Mathematics (Honours)
  • Master of [ Statistics, Mathematics, Science in Quantitative Economics, Science in Library and Information Science, Technology in Computer Science, Technology in Quality, Reliability and Operations Research]
  • & Doctor of Philosophy.

The Kolkata campus is known as S.N. Bose Bhavan & Kolmogorov Bhavan & offers bachelors level degree in Statistics (B.Stat) and masters degree in Statistics, Computer Science, Quality Reliability and Operations Research and Quantitative Economics.

  • Major divisions and units are: Stat. Math. Unit (SMU);
  • Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit(PAMU);
  • Advanced Computation and MicroElectronics Unit (ACMU);
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Unit (CVPRU);
  • Machine Intelligence Unit (MIU);
  • Electronics and Communication Sciences Unit (ECSU);
  • Applied Statistics Unit (ASU) etc.

The Kolkata campus also houses the The International Statistical Education Centre (ISEC) opened in 1950. This Centre has been providing training in Statistics to sponsored students mainly from the countries of the Middle East, South and South East Asia, theFar Eastand the Commonwealth Countries of Africa. The Centre also offers various short-term courses in Statistics and related subjects.

The Central Library of ISI is located at Kolkata with a network extending to other locations of the Institute. Over the years, the library has attained the distinction of being one of the richest libraries of the country, particularly in the field of Statistics and related disciplines. The Central Library at Kolkata has over 200,000 volumes of books and journals besides many official reports, reprints, maps, and microfilms. It receives about one thousand scientific and technical journals annually. The Library has acquired databases on CD-ROM and further digitization of the library facilities is in progress. The library has developed a separate collection of books and journals in Mathematics and Statistics known as Eastern Regional Centre of NBHM collection, out of the grants from the National Board for Higher Mathematics.

Prof.Mahalanobis also had an abiding interest in cultural pursuits and served as secretary to Rabindra Nath Tagore,   particularly during the latter’s foreign travels. He received one of the highest civilian awards, the Padma Vibhushan  from Government of India  for his contribution to science and services to the country. Mahalanobis expired on 28 June 1972, a day before his seventy-ninth birthday. Even at this age, he was still active doing research work and discharging his duties as the Secretary and Director of the Indian Statistical Institute  and as the Honorary Statistical Advisor to the Cabinet of the Government of India.

Apart from coveted & highly respected Padma Vibhushan, the following recognitions / awards were also conferred to him:

  • Weldon Medal from Oxford University (1944);
  • Fellow of the Royal Society, London (1945);
  • President of Indian Science Congress (1950);
  • Fellow of the Econometric Society, U.S.A. (1951);
  • Fellow of the Pakistan Statistical Association (1952);
  • Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, U.K. (1954);
  • Sir Deviprasad Sarvadhikari Gold Medal (1957);
  • Foreign member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1958);
  • Honorary Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge (1959);
  • Fellow of the American Statistical Association (1961);
  • Durgaprasad Khaitan Gold Medal (1961);
  • Padma Vibhushan (1968);
  • Srinivasa Ramanujam Gold Medal (1968);
  • The government of India decided in 2006 to celebrate his birthday, 29 June, as National Statistical Day.

References & Suggested Reading:

1.         Amitava Chowdhury. Akotrre Rabindranath (1983); Dey’s Publishing, Kolkta.

2.         Bandhopadhyay, Ranjan. Ancholik Itihaser Dorpone Baranagar (2003); Souvenir, Bengal Jute Mills Worker’s Union, 59th convocation.

3.         Clark, Ronald (1968) JBS: The Life and Work of J.B.S. Haldane ISBN 0-340-04444-6

4.         Dronamraju, Krishna R. (1987). [Expression error: Missing operand for “On Some Aspects of the Life and Work of John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, F.R.S., in India”]. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 41 (2): 211–237. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1987.0006.

5.         Dutta Mazumdar, Dwijesh. Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Socially Responsible Eminent Researcher in Statistics & applied Science (2008); Souvenir, Baranagar Utsav.

6.         History of ISI

7.         Marxist Philosophy and the Sciences (1939), Random House, Ayer Co. reprint: ISBN 0-8369-1137-7

8.         “Pranab Mukherjee inaugurates Chennai centre of Indian Statistical Institute”. The Hindu. 27.07.2008.

9.         Rao, C. R. (1973) Prasantha Chandra Mahalanobis. 1893-1972. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 19:454-492

10.       Rudra, A. (1996), Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis: A Biography.OxfordUniversity Press.

11.       Science and Everyday Life (1940), Macmillan, 1941 Penguin, Ayer Co. 1975 reprint: ISBN 0-405-06595-7

12.       Sen, Ajit. Anchalik Itihas – Baranagar, Vol – 1 to 10, Prosongo Baranagar, Thikana Baranagar.

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Natural Calamities / Disaster in Baranagar

Natural Calamity / Disaster in Baranagar

Jayanta Baksi

বরানগরে প্রাকৃতিক দুর্দৈব

জয়ন্ত বক্সী

প্রাকৃতিক রোষে পৃথিবীর বহু প্রাচীন ও উন্নত সভ্যতা আজ ধ্বংশপ্রাপ্ত। সৃষ্টির মূলে – ধ্বংশ, এক স্বাভাবিক প্রক্রিয়া। এই প্রক্রিয়া আবহমান কাল থেকেই অব্যাহত। বৃহৎ প্রাসাদোপম অট্টালিকা থেকে যন্ত্রদানব; এই ধরনের বিবিধ নির্মাণ হচ্ছে সভ্যতার গতি তরান্বিত করতে এবং সম্পুর্ণত প্রকৃতির নিয়মকে অগ্রাহ্য করে। কিন্তু প্রাকৃতিক রোষ যখন আছড়ে পড়ছে আধুনিক সভ্যতার উপর, তার ধ্বংশলীলার গতিপ্রকৃতি এবং ক্ষমতার আমূল পরিবর্তন ঘটছে। প্রাকৃতিক রোষের তীব্রতার মাত্রা (Intensity) এক থাকলেও বিপর্যয় বা ধ্বংশলীলা মারাত্মক আকার ধারন করছে; ক্ষয়ক্ষতির পরিমান ও মাত্রা বিশেষতঃ মৃত্যুর সংখ্যা ক্রমাগত পূর্বতন সমস্ত রেকর্ডকে ম্লান করে নতুন রেকর্ড সৃষ্টিতে মগ্ন। তথাকথিত আধুনিক সভ্যতার বিষময় ফল ক্রমাগত অনুধাবন করা যাচ্ছে। আলোচ্য অংশে ভূমিকম্প এবং ঘূর্ণিঝড়ের প্রতি দৃষ্টি নিবদ্ধ করা হয়েছে।

আবহমন্ডলের নিম্নচাপকেই সাধারনতঃ সাইক্লোন অর্থে ব্যবহার করা হয়। অর্থাৎ, টাইফুন থেকে শুরু করে সমস্ত প্রকার নিম্নচাপই, সাইক্লোন। যে সব ঝড়ে আবহমন্ডলের বায়ু ঘূর্ণায়মান হয় সেই সব ঝড়কেই “ঘূর্ণিঝড়” বলা হয়। ঘূর্ণিঝড় (Typhoons) বা গ্রীষ্মমন্ডলীয় প্রবল ঘূর্ণিঝড় বা ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন (Tropical Cyclones) বিভিন্ন নামে পরিচিত। ঘূর্ণি ঝড় পৃথিবীর কোন প্রান্তে উৎপন্ন বা সৃষ্টি হয়েছে তার উপর নির্ভর করে তাদের নামকরন করার প্রথা বিদ্যমান হলেও সৃষ্টি স্হলের উপর নির্ভর করে “ট্রপিক্যাল” শব্দ ব্যবহার করা হয় না বরং ঝড়ের প্রকৃতি বা ধ্বংসাত্মক ক্ষমতার উপর নির্ভর করে নামকরন প্রযোজ্য হয়। উত্তর প্রশান্ত মহাসাগরীয় অঞ্চল এবং জাপানে যে ঘূর্ণিঝড় টাইফুন (Typhoon) নামে পরিচিত, সেই ধরনের ঝড়কে উত্তর ও মধ্য আমেরিকায় হারিকেন (Hurricane) এবং পৃথিবীর অন্যত্র সাইক্লোন (Cyclone) নামে অভিহিত করা হয়। ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোনের মধ্যে টাইফুনের শক্তি ও পুনরাবৃত্তিই সর্বাপেক্ষা বেশী।

সাইক্লোন বিশেষত ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোনের ক্ষেত্রে বায়ু পৃথিবীর উত্তর গোলার্ধে (Northern Hemisphere) পৃথিবীর পৃষ্ঠ ভূমির কাছাকাছি সব সময় দক্ষিণাবর্তে (Clockwise) এবং দক্ষিণ গোলার্ধে (Southern Hemisphere) উত্তরাবর্তে (Anti Clockwise) ঘূর্ণায়মান হয়।  জাপানে যে ঘূর্ণিঝড়ে বায়ুর গতিবেগ ৩৪ নট (Knots) অতিক্রম করে তাকেই টাইফুন নামে আখ্যায়িত করা হলেও আন্তর্জাতিক মানদন্ড অনুসারে অন্তত ৬৪ নট অতিক্রম করা ঘূর্ণিঝড়কে টাইফুন বলা হয়। বায়ুর গতিবেগকে “নট” অর্থে ব্যবহার করা হয়। ১ ঘন্টায় ১ নটিক্যাল মাইল দূরত্ব অতিক্রম করাকে 1 Knot (Kt) বলা হয়। 1 Kt = 1.852 km/h = 0.5144 m/s। বায়ুর গতিবেগের উপর নির্ভর করে ঘূর্ণিঝড়ের বিভাগ ও নামকরন নিচের সারনীতে* প্রদত্ত: 


বায়ুর গতিবেগ বা নট (Wind Speed = Knots)

১৭ পর্যন্ত

১৭ – ২৮

২৮ – ৩৪

৩৪ – ৪৮

৪৮ – ৬৪

৬৪ – ৯০

৯০ – ১১৬

১১৬ – ১২০

নিম্নচাপ অঞ্চল


ট্রপিক্যাল নিম্নচাপ

ট্রপিক্যাল ঝড়

প্রবল ট্রপিক্যাল ঝড়


ট্রপিক্যাল বিশৃঙ্খলা

ট্রপিক্যাল নিম্নচাপ

ট্রপিক্যাল ঝড়


নিম্নচাপ অঞ্চল


গভীর নিম্নচাপ

সাইক্লোন ঝড়

প্রবল সাইক্লোন ঝড়

অতি প্রবল সাইক্লোন ঝড়

অতি প্রবল সাইক্লোন ঝড়

ট্রপিক্যাল বিশৃঙ্খলা

ট্রপিক্যাল নিম্নচাপ

মাঝারি ট্রপিক্যাল ঝড়

প্রবল ট্রপিক্যাল ঝড়

ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন

প্রবল ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন

অতি প্রবল ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন

ট্রপিক্যাল বিশৃঙ্খলা

ট্রপিক্যাল নিম্নচাপ

ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন

ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন (হারিকেন), প্রবল ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোন

*Reference: Climate into the 21st century, WMO, 2003

উপরের অঞ্চল সূমহ: ১) উত্তর-পশ্চিম প্রশান্ত মহাসাগর ও সাউথ চায়না সামদ্রিক অঞ্চল; ২) অতলান্টিক মহাসাগর এবং উত্তর পূর্ব প্রশান্ত মহাসাগর, ক্যারিবিয়ান দ্বীপপুঞ্জ ও মেক্সিকো উপসাগর অঞ্চল; ৩) উত্তর ভারত মহাসাগর, বঙ্গোপসাগর এবং আরব সাগর; ৪) দক্ষিণ-পশ্চিম ভারত মহাসাগর; ৫) দক্ষিণ প্রশান্ত মহাসাগর এবং দক্ষিণ-পূর্ব ভারত মহাসাগর।

পৃথিবীর ইতিহাসে অতি প্রবল ৩০টি মারণাত্মক ভূমিকম্প এবং ঘূর্ণিঝড় বা ট্রপিক্যাল সাইক্লোনের মধ্যে ২টি কলকাতা তথা বরানগর অঞ্চলে মারাত্মক ক্ষয়ক্ষতির সৃষ্টি করে। প্রথমটি ঘটে ১১/১২ই অক্টোবর, ১৭৩৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে। গঙ্গা নদীর পার্শ্ববর্তী অঞ্চল সূমহে এই সাংঘাতিক ভূমিকম্প ও ঝড়ের অভিঘাতে ২০,০০০ জাহাজ ধ্বংসপ্রাপ্ত হয়।

এই বিষয়ে একটি বিশেষ সংবাদ শ্রীরঙ্গলাল বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায় রচিত “কলিকাতা কল্পলতা” প্রতি দৃষ্টি সংযুক্ত করা হলঃ 

এই বিষয় ওল্ডহ্যামের (Oldham 1883) জেন্টলসম্যান পত্রিকার (The Gentleman’s Magazine, Historical Chronicle, June 1738. Volume 8 Page 321,London) জুন ১৭৩৮-১৭৩৯ সংখ্যার উল্লেখ প্রনিধান যোগ্যঃ

“October 11 night 1737 CALCUTTA. In the night between the 11 th and 12 th October 1737, there happened a furious hurricane at the mouth of the Ganges, which reached 60 leagues up the river. There was at the same time a violent earthquake, which threw down a great many houses along the river side; in Golgotta (Calcutta) alone, a port belonging to the English, two hundred houses were thrown down, and the high and magnificent steeple of the EnglishChurchsunk into the ground without breaking. It is computed that 20,000 ships, barques, sloops, boats, canoes, & c., have been cast away. Of nine English ships then in the Ganges, eight were lost, and most of the crews drowned. Barques of 60 tons were blown two leagues up the river; three were lost with their men and cargoes; 300,000 souls are said to have perished! The water rose 40 feet higher than usual in the Ganges”. [Further Reading: Oldham, T. (1883). Catalogue of Indian Earthquakes, Memoirs Geological Survey of India, Vol.19, Pt.3, pp.170].  


৫ই অক্টোবর, ১৮৬৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দ

গঙ্গা নদীতে ঘূর্ণিঝড়ে বহু বাস্পীয় জাহাজের প্রভূত ক্ষয়ক্ষতির দৃশ্য

(Source: e-bay)

ওল্ডহ্যাম কলকাতায় ৩ লক্ষ মানুষের মৃত্যু উল্লেখ করছেন। কিন্তু, ১৬৯০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে জোব্ চার্নক কলকাতা শহরের পত্তন ঘটানোর ১০ বছর পর, ১৭০০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে কলকাতায় প্রায় ১০০০০ মানুষের বসবাসের আন্দাজ পাওয়া যায়। ১৭৫৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে সর্ব্বপ্রথম সরকারী জনগণনা অনুসারে কলকাতার জনসংখ্যা ছিল ৪৫০০০। হ্যামিলটনের (Hamilton, Alexander, A New Account of the East Indies, 2 , Edinburgh, 1727) মতানুসারে ১৭০৫ থেকে ১৭২০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে কলকাতার জনসংখ্যা ছিল ১০ থেকে ১২ হাজার। আবার, আহমেদের (Ahmed, S. U.,Dacca: A study in Urban History and Development, Lond. Studies on S. Asia, 4, pp. 266.Curzon Press, 1986) মতানুসারে ১৭৩৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে কলকাতার ২৫০ কিমি পূর্বে অবস্হিত তৎকালীন বাংলার সর্বাপেক্ষা জনবহুল শহর ঢাকার জনসংখ্যা ছিল প্রায় ৯ লক্ষ।

প্রাথমিক পর্য্যয়ে ৩ লক্ষ মানুষের মৃত্যু আন্দাজ করা হলেও ১৭৩৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে তৎকালীন কলকাতার জনসংখ্যা প্রায় ২০ হাজার ছিল বলে গবেষণায় ইঙ্গিত পাওয়ায়, ১৭৩৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দের ভূমিকম্প এবং ঘূর্ণিঝড়ে মৃতের সংশোধিত সংখ্যা হয়, ৩ হাজার (সূত্র:। [Further Reading: Roger Bilham, The 1737 Calcutta Earthquake and Cyclone Evaluated, Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer. 84(5), 1650-1657, 1994)। সুতরাং সমীক্ষানুসারে, অবিভক্ত বাংলার সমস্ত জনসংখ্যার অনুপাত এবং সমুদ্র-নদী উপকূলবর্তী স্হানে মানুষের মৃত্যুকে সংযুক্ত করলে এই সংখ্যা ৩ লক্ষ হতে পারে।

৫ই অক্টোবর ১৮৬৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে সাইক্লোনের অভিঘাতে গঙ্গাবক্ষে জাহাজ ও ঘাটের ক্ষয়ক্ষতির দৃশ্য

সূ্ত্র:দ্য ইলাস্ট্রেটেড লন্ডন নিউজ  (১৯শে নভেম্বর, ১৮৬৪ Click on these pictures for larger viewখ্রীষ্টাব্দ)

দ্বিতীয় এই ধরনের সাংঘাতিক ভূমিকম্প ও ঝড়ের অভিঘাতের পরবর্তী ঘটনাটি ঘটে ৫ই অক্টোবর ১৮৬৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে। এই ঝড়ে প্রায় ৬০,০০০ মানুষের জীবন হানি ঘটে (সূত্র:। এমনকি, গঙ্গাবক্ষে বহু বাস্পীয় জাহাজের প্রভূত ক্ষয়ক্ষতি সাধিত হয়, ধূলিসাৎ হয় ২ টি গীর্জার চূড়া, বাসস্হান ধ্বংশপ্রাপ্ত হয় ইউরোপীয়ানদের ৯২টি এবং দেশীয় ব্যক্তিবর্গের ৮৯,৪৪০টি এবং ৪৩ জন মানুষের প্রানহানি ঘটে। (সূত্র: Downing, J. de G., The cyclone of 1864, inBengal Past and Present, J. Calcutta Historical Society, 1, 112-122, 1907)। এই বিষয়ে ১৯শে নভেম্বর, ১৮৬৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে দ্য ইলাস্ট্রেটেড লন্ডন নিউজ পত্রিকার অংশ বিশেষ উল্লেখ করা হলঃ

“In our last week’s Paper we gave an Illustration of the terrible horror caused by the cyclone or revolving hurricane of Oct, among the crowded shipping in the River Hooghly, at the portof Calcutta. We have thought it worth while to publish in this number a couple of views of that extraordinary scene, which are engraved from the photographs taken on the spot by Mr.Wagentreiber. The particulars of the disaster were so fully related in our former account that it is needless to repeat the description. It may be added that, from a report to the Meteorological Society of Calcutta, it appears that the pressure of the wind at one moment during the storm amounted to as much as thirty-two pounds on the square inch. Some notion of its comparative force may be obtained, if this estimate be correct, from the records of the most violent gales experienced of the late years in our own country, as the maximum pressure then attained was forty-three pounds to the square foot.” – The Illustrated London News, Saturday, 19th November 1864.

৫ই অক্টোবর ১৮৬৪ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে আশ্বিনের এই ঝড়ে খিদিরপুর ডক থেকে নোঙর ছিঁড়ে গঙ্গায় ভাসমান বহু জাহাজ বঙ্গোপসাগরের বিপরীতে অর্থাৎ গঙ্গার উৎসস্হলাভিমুখে ধাবিত হয়ে ক্ষতিগ্রস্হ অথবা ধ্বংশপ্রাপ্ত হয়। ২০টি জাহাজ গঙ্গায় ডুবে যায় এবং ১৪৫টি বিভিন্ন ডাঙ্গায় বা ঘাটে উঠে পড়ে। এই রকম জাহাজগুলোর মধ্যে ৩টি জাহাজের একটি বরানগরে লোচন ঘোষের ঘাটে উঠে পড়ে, দ্বিতীয়টি (Earl of Clare) বরানগর জুট মিলের তীরে স্হান নেয় এবং তৃতীয়টি বরানগরের কুটিঘাটের কাছে জয়মিত্র কালীবাড়ীর নহবৎ দুটিকে ক্ষতিগ্রস্হ করে নিজেও চূর্ণবিচূর্ণ হয়। বরানগর জুট মিলে সংযুক্তিকৃত (Assembled) জুট মিলের নিজস্ব জাহাজ “বরানগর”, বরানগরের বিপরীতে অবস্হিত হাওড়া জেলার শালকিয়ার কাছে গঙ্গায় ডুবে যায় (সূত্র: সেন, অজিত; আঞ্চলিক ইতিহাস – বরানগর, ৩য় খন্ড, প্রকাশ – জন্মাষ্টমী, ২৮শে শ্রাবণ ১৩৯৭, 13th August, 1990)।

যাইহোক, কলকাতার পাশ দিয়ে বয়ে যাওয়া গঙ্গা নদী পশ্চিমবঙ্গের একটা বিশেষ জেলার নামে দূর্বোধ্য কারনে আখ্যায়িত হলেও কলকাতা তথা বরানগর অঞ্চল এই ঝড়ের প্রকোপে ক্ষতিগ্রস্হ হওয়ার কিছু প্রামান্য আলোকচিত্র সংযুক্ত করা হল।

তৃতীয় এই ধরনের সাংঘাতিক ভূমিকম্প ও ঝড়ের অভিঘাতের [আসাম ভূমিকম্প, কেন্দ্রস্হল – 26.000 N, 91.000 E. Mw 8.1 (12)] ঘটনাটি ঘটে ১২ই জুন ১৮৯৭ খ্রীষ্টাব্দে। মাটির প্রায় ২০ মাইল বা ৩২ কি.মি. তলে এর সৃষ্টি; ব্যপ্তি ছিল বার্মা থেকে দিল্লী পর্যন্ত প্রায় ২৫০০০০ স্কোয়ার মাইল। ১৫০০০০ স্কোয়ার মাইলের মধ্যের কংক্রিটের স্হাপত্য ধূলিস্যাৎ এবং প্রায় ১৫০০ মানুষের জীবন হানি হয় প্রধানত আসাম, মেঘালয় এবং সন্নিহিত অবিভক্ত বাংলা দেশ বিশেষত কলকাতা থেকে উত্তরবঙ্গের ডুয়ার্স পর্য্যন্ত। সুতরাং, ক্ষয়ক্ষতির পরিমান বিশেষতঃ মৃত্যুর সংখ্যা ক্রমাগত নিত্ত নতুন রেকর্ড সৃষ্টিতে মগ্ন। প্রামান্য তথ্যাবলীর অভাবজনিত কারনে ১৯০০ খ্রীষ্টাব্দের পূর্বে জীবন হানির সঠিক সংখ্যা নিরুপনের উদ্দেশ্যে Encyclopaedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones (1999) by David Longshore প্রভৃতি পুস্তকের সাহায্য নেওয়া হয়েছে। 

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Janmastami, 22nd August 2011, Kolkata



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